Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Five IT Certifications that will take your Tech Career a step forward


Five IT Certifications that will take your Tech Career a step forward


Want to know which IT certifications will enhance your job profile and will take your tech career a step forward? Here, we have brought the top five IT certifications to boost up your career:
1. Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA): CCNA certification validates a professional’s expertise in configuring, operating, and troubleshooting medium-level routed and switched networks. It also includes the validation and application of connections through distant sites using WAN.
Certification process: To become a CCNA certified, you need to pass a 90-minutes exam consisting of about 50-60 questions. The question format for this exam is multiple-choice, single-answer, drag and drop, fill in the blank and so on. The test costs around USD 295.
Job titles: Network engineer, network administrator, and systems administrator.
2. CompTIA A+: CompTIA A+ certification is an industrially recognized vendor-neutral certification designed to ensure knowledge and skills for entry-level IT professionals to configure, install, and maintain devices, PCs and software for end users, assemble components based on customer requirements, and so on.
Certification process: To become A+ certified, professionals have to pass two exams: 220-901 and 220-902. The question format for this exam is multiple choice and performance-based. The exam cost is approximately USD 200.
Job titles: In-home support specialist, desktop support technician, and help desk technician.
3. Network+: Network+ is a globally recognized credential designed to ensure technical knowledge required for foundation-level IT network practitioners to troubleshoot, manage, install, maintain, operate and configure basic network infrastructure, basic design principles, describe networking technologies, and adhere to wiring standards and use testing tools.
Certification process: To become a Network+ certified, professionals need to pass a 90-minutes exam consisting of 90 questions. The exam costs around USD 285.
Job titles: Helpdesk technician, information technology specialist, and information technology technician.
4. Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP): ISC2 CISSP is an advanced-level certification designed to ensure skills and knowledge required for IT security professionals to engineer, implement, manage, and design the overall information security program to protect organizations from growing sophisticated attacks.
Certification process: The CISSP certification exam includes eight topics. It contains 250 questions which have to be completed in six hours. The exam cost is around USD 600.
Most common job titles: Information technology auditor, security analyst, information security analyst, and so on.
5. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE): Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) certification is designed to ensure proficiency and skills to use Windows Server, System Center, and other Microsoft technologies. The MCSE exam validates your ability to design systems and complex solutions, solve difficult problems requiring innovative resolutions, build and deploy, as well as operate, maintain and optimize Microsoft-based systems.
Certification process: The exam has a five-step process that contains various question formats such as multiple choice, drag-and-drop, and simulation problems. The exam costs around USD 150 regardless of the specialization.
Job titles: Systems administrator, field systems technician, and systems engineer.
So, what are you waiting for? Earning one of these top IT certifications will enhance your IT career and increase the job proficiency. Start your preparation now!



Monday, 19 June 2017

Other Modifiers for Members in Java

Other Modifiers for Members in Java

Certain characteristics of fields and/or methods can be specified in their declarations by the following keywords:

static Members: The declaration of static members is prefixed by the keyword static to distinguish them from instance members.
Static variables (also called class variables) only exist in the class they are defined in. They are not instantiated when an instance of the class is created. In other words, the values of these variables are not a part of the state of any object.
Static methods are also known as class methods. A static method in a class can directly access other static members in the class. It cannot access instance (i.e., non-static) members of the class, as there is no notion of an object associated with a static method.

final Members: A final variable is a constant, despite being called a variable. Its value cannot be changed once it has been initialized. This applies to instance, static and local variables, including parameters that are declared final.
A final variable of a primitive data type cannot change its value once it has been initialized.
A final variable of a reference type cannot change its reference value once it has been initialized, but the state of the object it denotes can still be changed.
A final method in a class is complete (i.e., has an implementation) and cannot be overridden in any subclass. Subclasses are then restricted in changing the behavior of the method.

abstract Methods: An abstract method does not have an implementation; that is, no method body is defined for an abstract method, only the method prototype is provided in the class definition. Its class is then abstract (i.e., incomplete) and must be explicitly declared as such. Subclasses of an abstract class must then provide the method implementation; otherwise, they are also abstract.

synchronized Methods: Several threads can be executing in a program. They might try to execute several methods on the same object simultaneously. If it is desired that only one thread at a time can execute a method in the object, the methods can be declared synchronized. Their execution is then mutually exclusive among all threads. At any given time, at the most one thread can be executing a synchronized method on an object. This discussion also applies to static synchronized methods of a class.

native Methods:Native methods are also called foreign methods. Their implementation is not defined in Java but in another programming language, for example, C or C++. Such a method can be declared as a member in a Java class definition. Since its implementation appears elsewhere, only the method prototype is specified in the class definition. The method prototype is prefixed with the keyword native. 

transient Fields: Objects can be stored using serialization. Serialization transforms objects into an output format that is conducive for storing objects. Objects can later be retrieved in the same state as when they were serialized, meaning that all fields included in the serialization will have the same values as at the time of serialization. Such objects are said to be persistent.
A field can be specified as transient in the class declaration, indicating that its value should not be saved when objects of the class are written to persistent storage.

volatile Fields: During execution, compiled code might cache the values of fields for efficiency reasons. Since multiple threads can access the same field, it is vital that caching is not allowed to cause inconsistencies when reading and writing the value in the field. The volatile modifier can be used to inform the compiler that it should not attempt to perform optimizations on the field, which could cause unpredictable results when the field is accessed by multiple threads.


Member Accessibility Modifiers in Java

Member Accessibility Modifiers in Java

By specifying member accessibility modifiers, a class can control what information is accessible to clients (i.e., other classes). These modifiers help a class to define a contract so that clients know exactly what services are offered by the class.
Accessibility of members can be one of the following:
  • public
  • protected
  • default (also called package accessibility)
  • private

A member has package or default accessibility when no accessibility modifier is specified. The member accessibility modifier only has meaning if the class (or one of its sub classes) is accessible to the client. Also, note that only one accessibility modifier can be specified for a member.

public Members: Public accessibility is the least restrictive of all the accessibility modifiers. A public member is accessible from anywhere, both in the package containing its class and in other packages where this class is visible. This is true for both instance and static members.(eg SuperclassA, SubclassB)

protected Members: A protected member is accessible in all classes in the package containing its class, and by all subclasses of its class in any package where this class is visible. In other words, non-subclasses in other packages cannot access protected members from other packages. It is less restrictive than the default accessibility(eg SuperclassA1, SubclassB1).

Default Accessibility for Members: When no member accessibility modifier is specified, the member is only accessible by other classes in its class's package. Even if its class is visible in another (possibly nested) package, the member is not accessible there. Default member accessibility is more restrictive than protected member accessibility.(eg SuperclassA2, SubclassB2)

private Members: This is the most restrictive of all the accessibility modifiers. Private members are not accessible from any other class. This also applies to subclasses, whether they are in the same package or not. Since they are not accessible by simple name in a subclass, they are also not inherited by the subclass. (eg SuperclassA3)




Friday, 9 June 2017

The five most desired certifications of 2017

The five most desired certifications of 2017


Being certified is the foolproof method to enhance your career a skills in the Information Technology industry. If you are one of those who considers certification as their career investment, then you must know which certifications are high in demand in 2017:



1. ISC)² CISSP: The (ISC)²’s CISSP certification is an industry recognized credential and is designed to certify the competency of IT professionals to design, engineer, implement, and manage the overall information security program of an organization. The CISSP exam tests the candidate’s understanding and knowledge in eight domains of the CISSP CBK, which are, Security and Risk Management, Asset Security, Security Engineering, Communications and Network Security, Identity and Access Management, Security Assessment and Testing, Security Operations, and Software Development Security.

According to (ISC)², as of October 2016, only 89,932 people hold the certification worldwide. Earlier this month, the PayScale.com surveyed a group of 3,872 CISSPs and found that their average yearly salary ranged from USD 54,820 to USD 152,311 depending on the candidate’s location, years of experience and job title.

2. Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC): The CRISC certification exam incorporates four major risk subject areas: identification, assessment, control monitoring and reporting, and response and mitigation. If the professional is focused on working in this area or if he has experience in the area and wants to be certified, he must go for CRISC exam.

According to the data from Global Knowledge’s 2017 IT Skills and Salary Survey, the average annual salary of Information Systems Control certified is USD 131,298.

3. Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA): ISACA CISA certification exam is intended for candidates interested in information systems audit, control, and security. This exam validates candidate’s experience and knowledge in the field of information assets protection; IT governance and management; systems audit; control and security and so on. CISA certification is a great benchmark for those who provide valuable services to an organization’s IT, legal, and accounting departments.

CISA is among the highest-paying IT certifications based on the 2016 IT Skills and Salary Report conducted by Global Knowledge, with an average yearly salary of USD 112,931.

4. Project Management Professional (PMP): PMP Certification is every IT professional’s choice because it helps them apply their knowledge across a variety of industries. The skills of professionals to apply project management principles provides them a solid foot in almost every industry and opens the opportunity for management level positions. As the demand for skilled project managers has increased, candidates who hold the PMP credential are well positioned to provide the professional skills necessary to lead project teams and achieve successful project results.

As per the 7th edition of PMI’s Project Management Salary Survey, which polled over 30,000 project managers from 29 different countries, the median annual salary for a Project Management Practitioner was USD 92,000.

5. EC-Council Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH): Recent cyber attacks like ransomware, other cyber security threats have made various organizations to look for certified ethical hackers to penetrate networks and computer systems so that they find and fix security vulnerabilities. CEH Certification helps you in recognizing vulnerabilities and weaknesses within an organization or business’ network. The only difference is that instead of exploiting these security gaps, you will use the knowledge to safeguard an organization or business network and patch if there are any potential exposures.

According to the Payscale.com, the average annual salary of a Certified Ethical Hacker is USD 89,000.

So, get geared up now for any of the above-mentioned certification areas to enhance your career prospects and boost-up your pay-grade!


Monday, 29 May 2017

Arrays in Java

Arrays in Java

An array is a data structure that defines an indexed collection of a fixed number of homogeneous data elements. All elements in the array have the same data type. A position in the array is indicated by a non-negative integer value called the index. An element at a given position in the array is accessed using the index. The size of an array is fixed and cannot increase to accommodate more elements.
  • In Java, arrays are objects. Arrays can be of primitive data types or reference types.
  • In the first case, all elements in the array are of a specific primitive data type. In the second case, all elements are references of a specific reference type. 
  • Each array object has a final field called length, which specifies the array size, that is, the number of elements the array can accommodate. The first element is always at index 0 and the last element at index n-1, where n is the value of the length field in the array.
  • Simple arrays are one-dimensional arrays.
  • An array variable declaration has either the following syntax:<element type>[] <array name>;
    Or
    <element type> <array name>[];
    where <element type> can be a primitive data type or a reference type .

The declaration does not actually create an array. It only declares a reference that can denote an array object.
  • Constructing an Array: An array can be constructed for a specific number of elements of the element type, using the new operator. The resulting array reference can be assigned to an array variable of the corresponding type.
    <array name> = new <element type> [<array size>];
  • The array declaration and construction can be combined. <element type1>[] <array name> = new <element type2>[<array size>];
  • Initializing an Array: Java provides the means of declaring, constructing, and explicitly initializing an array in one declaration statement:
    <element type>[] <array name> = { <array initialize list> };
  • Using an Array: The whole array is referenced by the array name, but individual array elements are accessed by specifying an index with the [] operator. The array element access expression has the following syntax:
    <array name> [<index expression>]
  • Anonymous Arrays:
    <element type>[] <array name> = new <element type>[] { <array initialize list> };
    can be used to declare an array for example
    int[] myArray = new int[] {1, 4, 6, 8}; 
  • Multidimensional Arrays: An array element can be an object reference and arrays are objects, array elements can themselves reference other arrays. In Java, an array of arrays can be defined as follows:
    <element type>[][]...[] <array name>;
    or <element type> <array name>[][]...[];


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